Essay egyptian civilization

Actual preservation practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Roman eras, while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appearance of the mummy, which was decorated. Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods for the deceased. Funerary texts were often included in the grave, and, beginning in the New Kingdom, so were shabti statues that were believed to perform manual labor for them in the afterlife.

After burial, living relatives were expected to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased. The ancient Egyptian military was responsible for defending Egypt against foreign invasion, and for maintaining Egypt's domination in the ancient Near East.

The military protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods. The military was responsible for maintaining fortifications along important trade routes, such as those found at the city of Buhen on the way to Nubia.

Forts also were constructed to serve as military bases, such as the fortress at Sile, which was a base of operations for expeditions to the Levant. In the New Kingdom, a series of pharaohs used the standing Egyptian army to attack and conquer Kush and parts of the Levant. Typical military equipment included bows and arrows , spears, and round-topped shields made by stretching animal skin over a wooden frame. In the New Kingdom, the military began using chariots that had earlier been introduced by the Hyksos invaders.

Weapons and armor continued to improve after the adoption of bronze: shields were now made from solid wood with a bronze buckle, spears were tipped with a bronze point, and the Khopesh was adopted from Asiatic soldiers. In technology, medicine, and mathematics, ancient Egypt achieved a relatively high standard of productivity and sophistication. Traditional empiricism , as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri c. The Egyptians created their own alphabet and decimal system. Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had developed a glassy material known as faience , which they treated as a type of artificial semi-precious stone.

Faience is a non-clay ceramic made of silica , small amounts of lime and soda , and a colorant, typically copper. Several methods can be used to create faience, but typically production involved application of the powdered materials in the form of a paste over a clay core, which was then fired.

By a related technique, the ancient Egyptians produced a pigment known as Egyptian Blue , also called blue frit, which is produced by fusing or sintering silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as natron.

Ancient Egypt

The product can be ground up and used as a pigment. The ancient Egyptians could fabricate a wide variety of objects from glass with great skill, but it is not clear whether they developed the process independently. However, they did have technical expertise in making objects, as well as adding trace elements to control the color of the finished glass.

A range of colors could be produced, including yellow, red, green, blue, purple, and white, and the glass could be made either transparent or opaque. The medical problems of the ancient Egyptians stemmed directly from their environment. Living and working close to the Nile brought hazards from malaria and debilitating schistosomiasis parasites, which caused liver and intestinal damage. Dangerous wildlife such as crocodiles and hippos were also a common threat. The lifelong labors of farming and building put stress on the spine and joints, and traumatic injuries from construction and warfare all took a significant toll on the body.

The grit and sand from stone-ground flour abraded teeth, leaving them susceptible to abscesses though caries were rare.

Ancient egyptian civilization essay

The diets of the wealthy were rich in sugars, which promoted periodontal disease. Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, such as Imhotep , remained famous long after their deaths. Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments. Wounds were treated by bandaging with raw meat, white linen, sutures, nets, pads, and swabs soaked with honey to prevent infection, [] while opium thyme and belladona were used to relieve pain.

The earliest records of burn treatment describe burn dressings that use the milk from mothers of male babies.


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Prayers were made to the goddess Isis. Moldy bread, honey and copper salts were also used to prevent infection from dirt in burns. Ancient Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bones , and amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some injuries were so serious that they could only make the patient comfortable until death occurred.

The Archaeological Institute of America reports that the oldest planked ships known are the Abydos boats. Discovered by Egyptologist David O'Connor of New York University , [] woven straps were found to have been used to lash the planks together, [6] and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams. Early Egyptians also knew how to assemble planks of wood with treenails to fasten them together, using pitch for caulking the seams. The " Khufu ship ", a Early Egyptians also knew how to fasten the planks of this ship together with mortise and tenon joints.

Large seagoing ships are known to have been heavily used by the Egyptians in their trade with the city states of the eastern Mediterranean, especially Byblos on the coast of modern-day Lebanon , and in several expeditions down the Red Sea to the Land of Punt. In archaeologists from Italy, the United States, and Egypt excavating a dried-up lagoon known as Mersa Gawasis have unearthed traces of an ancient harbor that once launched early voyages like Hatshepsut 's Punt expedition onto the open ocean.

In , an ancient north-south canal dating to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt was discovered extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes. The earliest attested examples of mathematical calculations date to the predynastic Naqada period, and show a fully developed numeral system.

They understood basic concepts of algebra and geometry , and could solve simple sets of simultaneous equations. Mathematical notation was decimal, and based on hieroglyphic signs for each power of ten up to one million. Each of these could be written as many times as necessary to add up to the desired number; so to write the number eighty or eight hundred, the symbol for ten or one hundred was written eight times respectively. Standard tables of values facilitated this. Ancient Egyptian mathematicians knew the Pythagorean theorem as an empirical formula. They were aware, for example, that a triangle had a right angle opposite the hypotenuse when its sides were in a 3—4—5 ratio.

The golden ratio seems to be reflected in many Egyptian constructions, including the pyramids , but its use may have been an unintended consequence of the ancient Egyptian practice of combining the use of knotted ropes with an intuitive sense of proportion and harmony.


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  7. Greek historian Herodotus claimed that ancient Egyptians looked like the people in Colchis modern-day Georgia. This claim has been largely discredited as fictional by modern-day scholars. For the fact is as I soon came to realise myself, and then heard from others later, that the Colchians are obviously Egyptian.

    When the notion occurred to me, I asked both the Colchians and the Egyptians about it, and found that the Colchians had better recall of the Egyptians than the Egyptians did of them. Some Egyptians said that they thought the Colchians originated with Sesostris ' army, but I myself guessed their Egyptian origin not only because the Colchians are dark-skinned and curly-haired which does not count for much by itself, because these features are common in others too but more importantly because Colchians, Egyptians and Ethiopians are the only peoples in the world who practise circumcision and who have always done so.

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    Essay on egyptian civilization | Georgia Olive Growers AssociationGeorgia Olive Growers Association

    A team led by Johannes Krause managed the first reliable sequencing of the genomes of 90 mummified individuals in from northern Egypt buried near modern-day Cairo , which constituted "the first reliable data set obtained from ancient Egyptians using high-throughput DNA sequencing methods. What's more, the genetics of the mummies remained remarkably consistent even as different powers—including Nubians, Greeks, and Romans—conquered the empire.

    Other genetic studies show much greater levels of sub-Saharan African ancestry in the current-day populations of southern as opposed to northern Egypt, [] and anticipate that mummies from southern Egypt would contain greater levels of sub-Saharan African ancestry than Lower Egyptian mummies. Ramesses II pharaoh's mummy reveals an aquiline nose and strong jaw.

    It stands at about 1. The mummy was also forensically tested by Professor Pierre-Fernand Ceccaldi, the chief forensic scientist at the Criminal Identification Laboratory of Paris. Professor Ceccaldi determined that: "Hair, astonishingly preserved, showed some complementary data—especially about pigmentation: Ramses II was a ginger haired ' cymnotriche leucoderma '. The culture and monuments of ancient Egypt have left a lasting legacy on the world. The cult of the goddess Isis , for example, became popular in the Roman Empire , as obelisks and other relics were transported back to Rome.

    Essay on egyptian civilization

    Early historians such as Herodotus , Strabo , and Diodorus Siculus studied and wrote about the land, which Romans came to view as a place of mystery. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance , Egyptian pagan culture was in decline after the rise of Christianity and later Islam , but interest in Egyptian antiquity continued in the writings of medieval scholars such as Dhul-Nun al-Misri and al-Maqrizi.

    This renewed interest sent collectors to Egypt, who took, purchased, or were given many important antiquities. Although the European colonial occupation of Egypt destroyed a significant portion of the country's historical legacy, some foreigners left more positive marks. In the 20th century, the Egyptian Government and archaeologists alike recognized the importance of cultural respect and integrity in excavations.

    The Supreme Council of Antiquities now approves and oversees all excavations, which are aimed at finding information rather than treasure.