Reference list format for essay

The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top.


  • a time to kill book report!
  • unsw thesis conference.
  • The 12 Basic Rules of APA Format;
  • Welcome to the Purdue OWL;
  • Article (With DOI).

Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data.

However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper.

The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table.


  • APA Writing Style Guide.
  • APA Referencing Guide.
  • genetic research newspaper articles.
  • 9.3 Making Your Quotes Fit;
  • keeping wild animals as pets essay?
  • ict gcse coursework 2011.

There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format.

The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included.

Elements of the reference list | Academic Writing in English, Lund University

Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web.

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix a four-digit number assigned to organizations and a suffix a number assigned by the publisher. Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows — doi Ever wonder what your personality type means?

Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. J Nurses Prof Dev. More in Student Resources. Title Page Example.

References, Bibliography, or Works Cited?

Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. Poe, M. Reframing race in teaching writing across the curriculum. Young Eds. Christensen, L. For my people: Celebrating community through poetry. Bigelow, B.

Harvey, S. Miller Eds. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools. Also include volume number and edition numbers in the parenthetical information after the book title where relevant. Freud, S. The ego and the id. Strachey Ed. London: Hogarth Press. Original work published If you need to cite content found in your online classroom, use the author if there is one listed , the year of publication if available , the title of the document, and the main URL of Walden classrooms. Health effects of exposure to forest fires [Lecture notes].

Smith, A. In a paper, you might want to define a word using an online dictionary where there is no set author or editor. Because there is no author, start your reference with the entry title or, in the case of a dictionary, the word. Then provide year, the title of the online work, and the URL. Osborne, C. Re: Environmental responsibility [Online discussion post]. Kirwan, J. An experimental study of the effects of small-group, face-to-face facilitated dialogues on the development of self-actualization levels: A movement towards fully functional persons Doctoral dissertation.

UMI No. If you retrieved the dissertation from an institutional or personal website per APA, p. Laureate Education Producer. Title of program here. In Title of video here [DVD]. Baltimore, MD: Author. The first option can be found on p. Use this option when citing a limited-circulation book or monograph.

Rivers, H.

APA Style Reference List: How to Reference Books

Title of document here. Kubista, A. Title of document in italics. Retrieved from ERIC database. Laureate International Universities. Essential guide to APA style for Walden students. The 6th edition APA manual devotes Appendix 7. Sample citation: In Brown v. Board of Education , the Supreme Court ruled racial segregation in schools unconstitutional. Sample citation: Minnesota nurses must maintain current registration in order to practice Minnesota Nurse Practice Act, Sample citation: The Anti-Phishing Act proposed up to 5 years prison time for people running Internet scams.

The extended information on the source should then appear in your reference section. If you are struggling with APA format or are looking for a good way to collect and organize your references as you work on your research, consider using a free APA citation machine.

APA Reference List: The Basics

These online tools can help generate an APA style referenced, but always remember to double-check each one for accuracy. Purchasing your own copy of the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is a great way to learn more about APA format and have a handy resource to check your own work against.

Looking at examples of APA format can also be very helpful. While APA format may seem complex, it will become easier once you familiarize yourself with the rules and format. The overall format may be similar for many papers, but your instructor might have specific requirements that vary depending on whether you are writing an essay or a research paper. In addition to your reference page, your instructor may also require you to maintain and turn in an APA format bibliography. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter.